Computer System Architecture

  1. Introduction
    What is Computer? Machine Language , Two Layer (Level) Machine ,Six Layer (Level) Machine  [pdf] [download pdf]
  2. Historical Developments
    Computer Generation, Von-Neuman machine, Zeroth generation- Mechanical Computers (1642-1940) First generation – Vacuum Tubes (1940-1955) Second Generation -Transistors (1956-1963) Third Generation – Integrated Circuits (1964-1971) Forth Generation � V LS-Integration (1971-present) Fifth Generation � Artificial Intelligence (Present and Beyond) [pdf] [download pdf]
  3. Introduction to Computer Architecture
    What is Computer Architecture?, Why Computer Architecture, Computer Organization, Central Processing Unit, Registers, Fetch-Decode execute circle, How CPU works?How BUS System works? [pdf] [download pdf]
  4. Intel Microprocessor History
    Intel Microprocessor History, Intel 4004, Intel 8008 Intel 8080 Intel 8086 Intel 80286 Intel 80386 Intel 80486 Intel Pentium I II III IV, Intel Core Duo, Intel Core Due, core i3 i5 i7 [pdf]  [download pdf]
  5. Microprocessors
    Processor Instructions, Processor modes, Features Bugs CPU Design Strategy [pdf] [download pdf]
  6. Performance of Computers
    Improving Performance of Computers, Instruction-level parallelism, Superscalar architecture, Moore’s Law and Performance, Amdahl�s law CPU performance equation Measuring components of CPU performance equation MIPS as a performance measure [pdf] [download pdf]
  7. Addressing
    What is Addressing? Direct Addressing Register Addressing Register Indirect Addressing Indexed Addressing Based-Indexed Addressing Instruction Types DMA [pdf] [download pdf]
  8. Memory Architecture and Primary Memory
    Primary Memory Memory errors  [pdf] [download pdf]
  9. Cache memory
    What is Cache memory? Cache Hit and Miss Locality Principle Cache Replacement Algorithms Mapping Comparison of Cache Sizes [pdf]  [download pdf]
  10. Secondary Memory
    Secondary Memory Magnetic storage Optical storage Solid state memory [pdf] [download pdf]
  11. Virtual Memory
    Virtual Memory Page Tables VM in Windows [pdf] [download pdf]
  12. Instruction Set Architecture
    Instruction Set Architecture Features off a good ISA ISA level Memory Models Pentium II ISA level Instruction Formats [pdf] [download pdf]
  13. IO Fundamentals
    PC with PCI and ISA bus Data Rate General Organization of a Bus Input Operation Operating System Requirements I/O Devices Interrupt Polling [pdf] [download pdf]
  14. Multi-core architectures
    Single Computer Multi-core CPU chip Why Multi-core Instruction-level parallelism Thread-level parallelism (TLP) What applications benefit from multi-core?  [pdf] [download pdf]

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